Smooth muscle is fundamentally different from skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle in terms of structure, function and regulation: Smooth muscle stimulation is involuntary (by either the autonomous nerve system, hormones, or intramuscular via gap junctions). It is the typical form of organ muscle that provides constrictability in blood and lymph vessels, peristalsis in the digestive tract, and the contractions in urinary bladder and uterus. There are smooth muscle cells in all organ walls, even in the skin (arrector pili) and the mucle fascia (myofibroblasts). Special smooth muscles are the inner sphincters of the bladder and the anus, the ciliary and the iris muscles of the eye. Even the glomeruli of the kidneys contain smooth muscle-like cells (mesangial cells).
Smooth muscle is capable of long-term contraction without tiring. It can also expand while keeping tonus. For maintaining elasticity, tissue with smooth muscle cells needs to be stretched regularly. Smooth muscle cells secrete extracellular matrix containing collagen, elastin and glycoproteins, which promotes viscoelasticity of the tissue, like enabling the windkessel function of the big arteries for to even out the blood flow. So, smooth muscle helps to execute the functions of the respective organ tissues.
The smooth muscles are of mesodermal origin with “Old Brain” reaction patterns – that means that the stress reaction is a functional increase and strengthening, and that this strengthening may prevail in and after the restoration phase. Their relays are in the midbrain on the border between brain stem and cerebral medulla.
Actin and myosin filaments contracting in smooth muscle fibre
Gut wall components
The midbrain (mesencephalon) belongs to the brain stem’s upper part.
graphic: Kevin Dufendach, compare Brain Stem
- Propulsing or retaining and processing a chunk or information.
- Protective function with help of contraction
Emotions and Thoughts
Attention, Fear, held-back Aggression
- I´m getting nowhere with this.
- I´m stuck. I can´t work it out.
- I need to do something!
- I need to endure that.
- I need to keep still.
- All that I´m taking in, I can digest and forward automatically and fluently.
- I move through any situation with ease and grace.
Side dominance is irrelevant for analysis.
Stress Phase Symptoms
Functional increase of the type that is needed in the moment of stress:
- Vessel- and organ wall muscle: local increase of tonus or peristalsis to hold, process or forward the “chunk”. Emergency intoxication program: vomiting reflex or diarrhea.
- Sphincters: holding back a “chunk”
- Erector pili: goose pimples, ruffled hair for defense
- Muscle fascia: Tonus increase for protection through muscles
- Ciliary muscle: accomodation to the desired focus
- Dilatation of the pupil: Capturing or avoiding light / visual information by tonus increase of the respective muscle.
In prolonged or recurring stress phases, tissue reinforcement can grow in the form of leiomyoma or “fibroids”.
Restoration Phase Symptoms
Slow normalisation of tonus, fluctuations are possible with i.e. increased peristalsis. The proliferation may also remain after restoration.
See stress phase
- The client has indigestion problems for 20 years, constipation and diarrhoea. She can’t let go of the anger towards her mother who had impeded her wish to study and become a chef. When processing and forgiving, her stomach gurgles and the feeling gets all warm. After that, her digestion improves gradually and her energy is high. (Killoran, MHU archive)
- The client has difficulty swallowing and avoids eating in public. She finds out that she could not swallow her belief that she would not be able to have children. Seeing mothers and babies is a stress trigger for her. Behind that is the fear to be abandoned. After reframing she perceives her “spiritual family”, and the symptom improves gradually. (Gedye, MHU archive)
- Often, the accommodation capacity of the visual lens decreases with age. Accommodation is a function of the ciliary muscle. Is becomes impossible to see clearly in very near distances. This reflects the strategy of not having to care for all small details.
- When hearing the noise of styrofoam or chalk screeching (stress trigger), many people react with goose pimples.
Brain Stem Constellation possible: perplex, stunned, reduced movement. Purpose: new orientation.
Motoric Innervation (Cerebral Cortex, -/+) Stress phase (inability to act): weakening and paralysis of the motion impulse; Restoration phase: gradually returning function; Healing Peak: muscle spasms
Skeletal Muscles (Cerebral Medulla, -/+) with weakness and possibly necrosis in stress phase (self-devaluation), inflammation and pain in the restoration phase, spasms in healing peak and strengthened tissue after finished restoration.
Submucosa /Connective tissue layer, blood and lymph vessels (Cerebral Medulla -/+) can react together with mucosa or muscle layer. Symptoms and diagnoses in the restoration phase may be lymphoma, inflammatory fibroid polyps, perineurioma and leiomyoma.